Holarctic Marmots as a factor of Biodiversity.
Rumiantsev V.Yu;, Nikol'skii A.A. & Brandler O.V. eds.,
Abstracts, 3d Conference on Marmots (Cheboksary, Russia, 25-30 August 1997),
Moscow ABF 1997, 216p., 103-104 (Russian), 156-157 (English).


N.Yu. Kholodnaya*, T.P. Boiko**, V.V. Uzhik*

*Kharkov State University
**Ukrainian Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Neurology and Psychiatry, Kharkov, Ukraine

Study of the season changes of metabolic parameters that determine different levels of the marmot communities functioning during summer activity, hibernation, falling, and exiting into and from wintering is important by several reasons. First it may be the study of the natural hibernation mechanisms and perhaps, this process directed regulation or its spesific correction. Second, it may be the comprehension of the metabolic basis of the hibernation that will be of use for creation of artificial hypobiosis conditions both for the hole organism and for separate organs and tissues intended for transplantation.

The task of this investigation consists in the searsh of biochemic parameters to be optimal for different periods of the marmot life. Biogenic amines attract special attention in this sense because these substances regulate basic functions of the organism - hunger, thirst, sleep, waking, termoregulation both in ordinary life and during the hibernation.

Researches have been carried out using two kind of marmots - Marmota bobac and Marmota camchatica in the late autumn period when the wintering began (the end of November 1996). The part of animals entered normally in the sleeping, a small group did not fall into winter-sleeping by different reason - they did not provide enouth fat on account of disease, their pair did not fall into hibernation.

Contents of biogenic amines - adrenalin, noradrenalin, serotonin, histamin were estimated in the plasma of blood, structures of brain, myocard, suprarenals of marmots using fluorometric methods.

It was showed that in the case of optimal enter into winter-sleep a higher level of serotonie and histamin was observed and concentration of noradrenalin decreased as compared with the group of animals that did not fall into wintering. Index serotonin/noradrenalin has grown in hypotalamus when the regime of hibernation was optimal. It was the result of the serotonine level growing mainly. Distinctive features of nonsleeping marmots metabolism were reduction of the quantity of adrenaline in suprarenals and increase of its concentration in the blood, downfall of concentratoin of noradrenalin in myocard and increase of concentration of serotonin in blood.

A complex of metabolic signs may be outlined for optimal physiologic entering into hibernation. Such sings are: rise of serotoninergic activity in the central nervous system and growth of serotonin concentration in blood, higher histamin level in the blood plasma. Unfavourable signs are: low level of serotonin in brain and in blood, cateholamin depot exhaustion in suprarenals and myocard, reduced histamin concentration in plasma and high level of adrenalin circulating in blood.

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