Holarctic Marmots as a factor of Biodiversity.
Rumiantsev V.Yu;, Nikol'skii A.A. & Brandler O.V. eds.,
Abstracts of the
3d Conference on Marmots (Cheboksary, Russia, 25-30 August 1997), Moscow ABF 1997, 216p.


A.P. Ajdak*, N.L. Saposnikov, A.V. Dimitriev**

* The collective-farm "Leninskaja Iskra" of the Jadrinsky district Chuvash Republic
** The State nature reserve "Prisursky", Cheboksary, Russia

By the nature zoning (Papchenkov, Dimitriev, 1994) the territory of the collective-farm "Leninskaja Iskra" of the Jadrinsky district Chuvash Republic is situated in the Central nature region, which is according to the relief represents by itself the alternation of the not high flat assymmetry watersheds and valleys. The middle absolute height of the relief is 140-180 m., maximum - 214-215 m., the depth of the erosion breaking up from 60 till 150 m. The collective-farm is situated in the north suburb of the Privolzhskaja height and it is in one of the relief organizing centres. In this nature district according to the capacity of the pastures is possible the existence of several dozens of the stable marmot's colony with the area more than 500 hectares and variety elementary colonies (Dimitriev, 1993).
On the collective-farm's territory is made a considerable complex work against erosion of the soil, is stopped the flat washing off of the soil from the fields and the growth of the ravines, and ecology agriculture is in the process and during more than twenty years pesticides are not used, a great attention is given to the guarding of the animal world, are organized entomological orders and is made reserve hunting economy. As the result of such a tedious work is made the ecology oasis, which influences beneficially on the collective-farm's economics.
For the biological recultivation of the agrolandscape and agrobiocenosis were brought different vertebrates and invertebrates animals. One of them are steppe marmots. They were brought to the collective-farm form the Ulyanovsky region by the administration hunting economy of the Chuvash Republic and were produced three times all in all 69 individuals: in 1982 - 29, 1988 - 40. The places of producing the marmots were guarded against poaching, strolling dogs. For those purposes were appointed the collective-farmers at the certain marmots' colonies. The cattle during the summer for a long duration wasn't on the pasture at the places, where were marmots' colonies. As the result of that work in the collective-farm the marmots found favourable conditions for the existence and began to spread further.
By the calculations, made in 1991, 1997 was fixed, that the marmots' colomies on the collective-farm's territory "Leninskaja Iskra" are well-being.
So, by the investigations of 23.08.91 is fixed, that by this tine existed 2 colonies in the district of the village N.Achaky. 16 families are registered, besides all of them with the broods. All in all in the families were 32 grown-up marmots and 96 cubs. The area, occupied by the marmots was 27 hectares. There was an information of that time, that at the distance from 1 till 4 (8) kilometres from the place of production began to be organized the daughter's colonies. The cases of destruction are not marked.
According to the information of the Jadrinsky district committee of the nature guarding ex-president Iljdeyev I.M. in 1991 the marmots were marked at two more places: on the slopes, which are situated near the river Mochkaushka between the villages Nasnary and Torchlovo (2 holes); in the collective-farm's garden near the village Salugino, which borders on the Alikovsky district of the republic. The fate of these both daughters' colonies is the same in the first colony in 1995 there were three families, but they disappeared in the result of the poaching; in the second colony the holes of the marmots were also destroyed by the poachers.
According to the hunter's informations of the heighbour Morgaushsky district one marmot in 1992 appeared in that region. This information was approved by Iljdeyev I.M.
As the results of the investigations in April and May 1997 is fixed the availability of five marmot's colonies on the collective-farm's territory and of two colonies out the collective-farm. All in all are fixed 107 marmot's families, among them 101 family live on the collective-farm's territory. Approximately the number of the marmots on the collective-farm's territory is not less then 500. More exact registrations will be done in the summer time.
There are the facts of destruction of the marmots by the foxes and strolling dogs and also by the poaching worry. One family, which made the hole on the glade of the coniferous forest in spring 1997 didn't show any signs of life, the other, which made the hole in the oak forest in the suburbs of the village N. Achaky was ruined by the fox. The marmot's holes, made in the forest mainly are not for living. They are easily found there by a fox. Two years ago in one of the colonies were taken off 17 loops, which were placed by the poachers. On of the holes at these places have the signs of the camp fire, which was organized 1-2 years ago.
The marmots are spreading out of the collective-farm's territory along the ecological passages by the natural way (villages Kumakkasy, Kukshumy, the river Vyla). In the near future they will be united with the marmots, which were let out in the Kozmodemyansky district of the republic Mary El, which were brought from the Aznakaevsky district of the republic Tatarstan, to be more exact, from the Levoberezhya of the Volga river. The mixture of these marmots is not desirable, because of the possibility to lose biovariety and levelling genofund Levo- and Pravoberezhny marmots' colonies of Povolzhya.

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