Holarctic Marmots as a factor of Biodiversity.
Rumiantsev V.Yu;, Nikol'skii A.A. & Brandler O.V. eds.,
Abstracts, 3d Conference on Marmots (Cheboksary, Russia, 25-30 August 1997),
Moscow ABF 1997, 216p. : 126-127.


D.I. Bibikov*, A.V. Dimitriev**, I.B. Abrakhina, N.A. Barmin***

* Severtsov' IPEE RAS, Moscow
** The State nature reserve "Prisursky", Cheboksary
*** The Ogaryov' State University of Mordovia , Saransk, Russia

Before carrying out the reacclimatisation and acclimatisation in the concrete districts were made certain types of the subcpecies and forms of the marmots. After the man's interference by the way of the animals' resettling from one place to another were dont essential changes in the aboriginal populations, which were not searched yet in details.

Originally the anthropogeny (producers') influence promoted the disappearance of the colonies and the whole populations of the marmots in very large areas in Siberia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Povolzhye, the Ukraine and others. Later, during the first (50-70) and the second (80-90 years) "waves" of the reacclimatisation and acclimatisation of the marmots on the Povolzhye territory and others districts of Russia and the Ukraine were made the essential mistakes which promoted or made the threat of the displacement of the genofund of different populations. Though during the second period of works for the settlements were worked out and were affirmed "The methodical recommendations about the settling of the steppe marmots in Russia" (1987), the executors ignored them not seldom. For example, according to these recomendations the populations of the left and right banks of the river Volga were not to be mixed. However, there are many examples of the violations of this point. The marmots from the Aznakaevsky district of the Republic Tatarstan (The left bank) were brought to the Mordovian Republic and to the Mary El Republic (the right bank). The marmots from the right bank of the Ulyanovsky region acclimatized themselves in the Udmurtsky Republic (the left bank).

To the relic Batyrevsky colony were let out the marmots from the Ulanovsky region which undoubtedly influenced on the genofund of this unique colony known from 1642. As to the Ukraine the steppe marmots in Nickolaevsky region were settled not only from the Kharkovsky region but still earlier from Kazakhstan.

As the result at some places took place and evidently will take place a mixture of the genofund of different marmots' populations. On the one hand this evidently is good gor the strengthening of the vulnerable populations owing to the appearance of the heterous individuals, which are adapted to the environments. On the other hand, the genofund is lost and levelled that is the populations variety of different taxsonomical rank, which is actually the violation of the World Convention "About biological variety". Besides, the composition of the brought together with the marmots living together and the parasites, the possibility of their taking root and transition to other types hasn't been studied yet.

Evidently it is high time for putting and placing in order in this affair not only by providing the observation after the newcomers' fate but also by changing the geno- and fenofunds for avoiding the biovariety losses.
For this purpose is necessary:
1. To arrange the study of the new marmots' colonies in the wide understanding of the guestions including the study of their geno- and phenoms, to observe their changes during time. To study the mixture of the morphometrical, physiological and other indexes.
2. To make the bank of the natural marmots' populations genofund.
3. The marmots' settlement as the type of activity must be licenced.
4. To work out the method of the marmots' settlement according to the time's demands.
5. To pick out all necessary means for the settling and to intensify the control after this process, at the first place the monitoring of the state of the newcomers' populations.
6. To organize the World and regional competent comissions for planning and coordinating the work in marmot's settlements.
7. To destroy the marmots' colonies, which arise and a real threat of the genofund's mixture of different remote populations.
8. To arrange the veterinary and guaranteed control in the marmots' settlings, to punish strictly for the rules' violation and standards.

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