Holarctic Marmots as a factor of Biodiversity.
Rumiantsev V.Yu;, Nikol'skii A.A. & Brandler O.V. eds.,
Abstracts, 3d Conference on Marmots (Cheboksary, Russia, 25-30 August 1997),
Moscow ABF 1997, 216p., 27 (Russian), 147 (English).


P.K. Gorshkov*, A.F. Kadash**, V.A. Birukov **

*Kazan State Pedagogical University,
**State Hunting Inspection of Tatarstan, Kazan, Russia

Tatarstan is the territory in Europe, where Marmota bobac is widely spread. It lives both in the south-west part of Predvolzhye and in the south-east part of Zavolzhya. In Tatarstan the number of Marmota bobac is about 30 thousand head, according to the State Hunting Inspection's accountings in 1991.

In 1993 about 800 beasts were gained there. There were several attempts of settling the marmots within the Republic of Tatarstan limits and far away from its boundaries.

The number of marmots in Tatarstan increased due to their protection and inconvenient virgin lands in the districts of their eettlements. At the same time, there are a lot of inconvenient virgin lands, where marmots don't live. It increase the outlook for acclimatization and reacclimatization of M. bobac.
The works, which were carried out, by settling M. bobac on the territory of the Republic, were not successful. It depends on the fact that the study of M. bobac wasn't fulfilled beforehand.

The success of increasing the number of marmots in settlements and the result of the acclimatization's works depend on the knowledge in biology, ecology and beast's behaviour reactions. The study of marmots in Tatarstan isn't great, inspite of the great number of old researches (Teplov, Tihvinski, 1991, 1993; Tihvinski, 1934; Popov, 1960). These researches spread just on the right bank of the river Volga. A lot of factors, such as: the changes in the conditions of land use, the great anthropogenic press and radical reforms in hunting affairs, undoubtedly had a definite influence on the life of different kind of beasts, including the marmots.

So, it is necessary for increasing the number of marmots, to observe their life during the whole period of their existence. It can be achieved just due to the permanent establishments, which should be organized in the districts of beast's settlements. In Tatarstan such permanent establishments should be organized in Leninogorsk (Shygyrovskaya reserve), Aznakaevsk (the mountain Chetir-Taur) and Buinsk (village Runga , village New-Tinchali) districts. The experts in the sphere of biology should lead these observations.

Besides, it is necessary to organize two expeditions (in spring, when the beats leave their minks and in autumn, before returning there), which help to count up the beasts all over the diatricts of their settlements. Also, it is necessary to inspect the potential placea, where the marmots will be set at liberty.

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