Holarctic Marmots as a factor of Biodiversity.
Rumiantsev V.Yu;, Nikol'skii A.A. & Brandler O.V. eds.,
Abstracts, 3d Conference on Marmots (Cheboksary, Russia, 25-30 August 1997),
Moscow ABF 1997, 216p. : 188-189.


E.N. Savinova, N.T. Khmelkov

Chuvash state pedagogical institute, Cheboksary, Russia

The problem of our research of steppe marmot colony in Batyrevsky district of Chuvash Republic was studying of fluctuations of population density, peculiarities of ecological structure and territorial accommodation of the animals. By the basic source of an actual material for the present message the visual quantitative accounts of marmots and traces of their ability to live, spent in 1994-96 were.

At the moment investigated the colony represents a settlement isolated from basic population, which is one of the northern points of contemporary distribution of the european subspecial of the steppe marmot.

During researches in ten families, forming the colony, was totalled on the average four persons, from which from 25 up 75% it was nesessery on a share of the posterity of a current year, 11 to 16% - on a share of the posterity of the previos year and from 25 up 75% on a share of the adult persons. The number of marmots of adult age groups is is rather steady owing to compensative character of lower ages number changes.

The analyze of accommodation and number of persons of families allows to attribute investigated colony to settlement of a stable type, as all family sites are constantly engaged, and share of "young" or unstable families makes no more than 10 to 20%. The aggregate number of the animals in the settlement in install period of researches was kept at a level 35-42 persons. In 1996 the population of the colony has grown up to 52 persons (at the expense of increase of a share of posterity).

Study of daily and seasonal marmots' activity has shown, that the period of seasonal ground activity in our conditions makes 5-5.5 months. In April - May the daily activity has the same character with the pike of activity in middle of a day (12-14 hours). In May duration of stay of the animals on a surface in connection with lengthening light time of days is increased. Closer to middle of summer (at the end of the June - beginning of July) the stay of the animals on a surface is extended till 13-14 o'clock and the curve of activity becomes two-piked - with morning (6-10 hours) and evening (18-20 hours) peaks. Such chastay of activity is kept during July, but in the end of the month the morning pike is displased closer to middle of a day.

In August the number active marmots is sharply reduced, period of stay of the separate animals on the surface decreases also and the curve of activity becomes one-piked. As against spring period the summary duration of stay on a surface during a day remains constant.

Our observations has shown that in April-August the active part of steppe marmots' population, consisting from changing each other on a surface persons, is submitted about 35-70% from total number of persons in the settlement.

Spatial-temporary regulation of the marmots' population density comes true in conditions researched settlement at a level of family. The analysis of quantity family holes and parity of adult persons and posterity marmots allows to assume, that investigated studying population at the moment represents as an unsatiated population, that, probably, is explained by presence of significant antropogenic influences.

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