Holarctic Marmots as a factor of Biodiversity.
Rumiantsev V.Yu;, Nikol'skii A.A. & Brandler O.V. eds.,
Abstracts, 3d Conference on Marmots (Cheboksary, Russia, 25-30 August 1997),
Moscow ABF 1997, 216p. : 194.


N.N. Shevljuk*, A.A. Stadnikov*, V.N. Rudi**

* Orenburg State Medical Academy,
** Orenburg State Pedagogical University, Orenburg, Russia.

Had been researched the testicles of the marmots from the first days since they going out on the land surface after hibernation. However we had not revealed an active spermatogenesis in none of them. 12 marmots which had been caught during the early April, had been divided into 2 groups. In first group (7 marmots) commonly was noted the earling stages of spermatogenesis oppression. The diameter of seminal convoluted tubules was 159.7 5.7 mkm, in most of them were absent the spermatosoons. So reconfirms the theory that the coupling of the marmots is held in burrows before they going out (Shubin, 1962; Bibikov, 1989; Mashkin, 1996).

Morphofunctional research ot the testicle Leydig cells from the animals of the first group, is revealed its high steroidogenous activity. In the endocrinocytes population were prevail cells with developed cytoplasm and large nucleoses. The nucleus volume in mature Leydig cells was considerable from 102.5 6.1 mkm3 to 198.4 8.6 mkm3. Ratio nucleus/cytoplasma was vary from 0.2 to 0.3. Most large cells were around the tubules, in which were observed the meioses.

In the second group (5 marmots) was noted another condition the testicles. The weight of the testicles was smaller in 1.5 times; the diameter of seminal convoluted tubules was smaller in 2 times; in spermatogenous epithelium of tubules was revealed almost total discontinuance of spermatogenesis, - were present only spermatogoniuses and Sertoli cells. One of the causes of such condition may be a poor fatness of animals before hibernation (Bibilkov, 1989). However the functional activity of the intersticial endocrinocytes was on the high level, judging by their morphologic parameters. Largest endocrinocytes were arround the tubules with minimal diameter.

In May the diameter of convoluted tubules sharply decreases in the first group of animals. In the ending of May - beginning of June the structure of the convoluted tubules in puberty marmots is similar to foetus seminal tubules. Secretory activity of endocrinocytes in that time is reduced. Since July in almost all animals (74.5 6.8%) volume of endocrinocytes and its nuclei increases. By the end of July Leydig cells have the morphofunctional characteristic such in April. In cytoplasm is good developed smooth endoplasmatic reticulum, there are numerous mitochondrion and lipid droplets. It is point out to the activization of steroidogenous function, because off it increases the spermatogenesis in seminal tubules. The diameter of tubules inlarges about 2 times and come nearer to the level such in early April. In many tubules reveales the mejosis, so spermatogenesis going up the stages of spermatocytes of 2 sequence and spermatides. The mature spermatozoons in tubules are not discovered. In this period of observation the most large endocrinocytes disposes around the tubules with meiosis.

Received facts are evidence about intimate interactions between the endocrine and germinative structures of the marmots testicles during the seasonal changes of it's reproductive activity. At the end of summer morphological equivalents of endocrinocytes activization is appear more pronounced and too early than activization of spermatogenesis in seminal tubules.

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