Holarctic Marmots as a factor of Biodiversity.
Rumiantsev V.Yu;, Nikol'skii A.A. & Brandler O.V. eds.,
Abstracts, 3d Conference on Marmots (Cheboksary, Russia, 25-30 August 1997),
Moscow ABF 1997, 216p. : 195.


S.P. Soldatov

Chuvashian Departament of protection of a environment, Cheboksary, Russia

About existence relict colonization of marmot-bobac in southern regions of Chuvash Republic it is known from 1642 year. Probablly these colonization are residual groups independent there is no time extensive northern populations of M. bobac, described in 1850 year by E. Eversmann. In 1930-1932 years in the Batyrevsky and Yalchicsky regions of Chuvash Republic was organized reservation for m.bobac, where on a territory about 1.5 thousand of hectares existed 7 large colonization. The amount of M. bobac in those years promptly dropped. In 1935-1936 years one & that 3 colonizations were there (Lvova, 1936, 1952; Oliger and other, 1966; Voronov, 1979, 1985, 1990). Remaining unique,as believed, relict colonization of M. bobac is located and at present in the Batyrevsky region, were the species reservation was organized in 1961 year for making the blood fresher colonization M. bobac between Bahtyarovo and Tatarsky Timyashi, where was in 1961 organized state species reservation. Unfortunately, for "making the blood fresher" in this were manufactured (issued) M. bobac from other populationes, wich were catching republican hunting departament in 1982 in Ulyanovsk region. Pursuing usfull of the purpose, game-biologists didn't noticed genetic value of the relict colonizationes. More correctly was to use for these purposes next colonies from the Republic Tatarstan, which are closer in the population idear. Colonization of m.bobac in Batyrevsky region (Chuvash Republic) near Tatarsky Timyashi was considered as the most northern point natural aria of this kind in Evrasia (Dyogkin, 1983; Bibicov, 1991, Dimitriev, 1993, and other), which totals about 50 numbers of bobac (May 1997). However, on a border of Yalchicsky region of Chuvash Republic and Buinsky region (Republic of Tatarstan) on lives large number of natural colonizations of M. bobac for a long-time (about 80 bobacs).

During inspection check of these territories in May 1997 in a day time was visually found out simultaneously grasing: in Batyrevsky colonization - 16 bobaces of different age and floor, in Yalchicsky - more than 30 bobacs.

At survey Yalchicsky colonization are found out 2 fox and 1 meles residential burron. Under the items of information regional widlifebiologist I.N. Sergeev foxes presented serious threat for bobacs at their spreading in new areas, for that they had to be shooted (Tatsugutskaya artificial colonization). In the natural colonizations there is anothe picture: M. bobac and carnivoras leave with one another. Some case are known, when at meeting adult foxes with the adult male of bobac, they smell each other for a long to the friend on distance not more than half-meter, then the fox turned back on a distance bobac stayed on place. The similar items of information act (arrive) and from hunters. A significant loss to colonizations can bring dogs and hunters out of low. In the Batyrevsky colonization facts of hunting huligans in the last years are not found out, in Yalchicsky - cases of shooting bobacs from a way and attaces on them dogs are known.

Areas of both colonizations - a beam with long-term herbs. Under the instruction nature protect of a service on their perimeter is long smell each and other grasing. Meeting of a cattle is terminated. For colonizations observe social men from the local inhabitants. The number of bobacs in southern regions gradually grows, occurs their natural reacclimatization, which in some cases results in occurrence new small colonization. The growth of number is constrained possessing by a place huning out low and, in some cases, dogs. Cases are known, when hunting dogs (teriers and hounds) became catching to bobacs.

At repeated visiting colonization in August 1997 low activity of terrias was found out extremely. In a day time time we have managed visually to find out only 2 bobacs in Tatsugutsky colonization, 2 in the Yalchicsky relict colonization and one in the Batyrevsky relict colonization. At survey availability of old traces of ability to live was marked: fecaly with specific and usual insectes-caprofages Steep herbs of community on all colonizations at this time were in a satisfactory condition, that speaks about sufficient fodder base.

Low activity of bobacs is possible was stipulated strong wind and predicted by meteorologyes at date of supervision "magnetic anomalies" In the Yalchicsky colonization was found out former bobac burrow, engaged by fox puppies, near which were present skins and scelet of fild harryes, 1 scalp (without bottom fibula) of adult bobac and fragment of bobac scalp.
At elimination of the factors, limiting numbers of bobacs, is possible (probable) progressiv growth them numbers, that can in turn allow to Departament of hunting of a facilities (economy), on a share of which a significant part reacclimatic work has dropped out, to permit a license craft.

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